A backcross is created when a hybrid plant or strain is bred with one of its parents, or with a strain genetically similar to its parent. The result is the isolation or strengthening of desired genetic traits, which may include plant height, bud colour, and cannabinoid content.
Bisabolol is a comforting, delicate, floral, peppery, and nutty-smelling terpene found naturally in the bark of the candeia tree, and in chamomile.
A blend is a product or package that contains two or more distinct strains of cannabis mixed together.
A blunt is made when dried cannabis flower is milled and rolled in a tobacco or cigar leaf. A pre-purchased cigar may be hollow. According to Health Canada, the inhalation of tobacco smoke carries with it the increased risk problems with heart and blood vessels, certain types of cancers, lung and respiratory problems, and other health issues including premature death.
A bong is a large cylindrical-pipe, made from either glass, wood, plastic or metal, which acts as a delivery system for cannabis smoke. It is made of several pieces, including a mouthpiece, a bowl to hold dried cannabis, and a stem that leads from the bowl to the smoke chamber.
With its minty and spicy notes, borneol is an invigorating terpene found in a number of aromatic herbs including rosemary, mint, ginger, mugwort, tarragon, camphor, and wormwood.
The bowl is the part of a smoking device, usually the end of a pipe or bong, which holds dried and milled cannabis. The bowl can be used with or without a screen, which prevents the inhalation of solid materials.
Originating at the stem, the cannabis bract is a specialized flowering leaf that surrounds the seeds and becomes part of the flower as it matures.
Also known as a water bong, a bubbler is a pipe that uses water, which may help filter and cool the cannabis smoke as it is inhaled.
The bud is the slang term for the dried flower of the cannabis plant. The bud is comprised of many elements, including the bract (specialized leaves), the calyx (a thin layer of cells that protects the seeds), pistils (orange or brown "hairs"), the stigma (the receptor to receive male pollen) and the trichomes (glands that produce terpenes and cannabinoids).
A budtender is a slang term for a cannabis consultant, or a customer service representative, at a cannabis retail outlet.
The Cannabis Act (formerly C-45) is the piece of government legislation that legalized access to non-medical cannabis in Canada. The bill also controls and regulates how cannabis is grown, packaged, distributed and sold. Bill C-45 was introduced in the Senate and given first reading on November 28, 2017. Bill C-45 was adopted at second reading in the Senate on March 22, 2018. The bill passed a third reading in the Senate on June 7, 2018 and was returned to the House of Commons with several amendments. The Cannabis Act was given Royal Assent on June 21, 2018 and became law on October 17, 2018.
Considered by legislators in parallel to Bill C-45, Bill C-46 is an act that amended the Criminal Code as it relates to drug use and driving. The bill introduced three new driving-related offences and gave the police increased powers to stop and test drivers that are thought to be impaired. For more information, please visit Openparliament.ca.
The calyx is a thin layer of cells of that protects the seeds and is the first part of the flower to develop. It contains the stigma, pistils, and trichomes with the bract, it contains some of the highest concentration of cannabinoids and resins in the plant.
Camphene is a reviving terpene with an herbal, piney, and woody aroma with notes of mint and citrus. It is found in dill, caraway, and fennel.
Camphor is a rejuvenating terpene that has woody and minty aromas. It is found in rosemary and the camphor tree.
Cannabacae is the name of the family of plants that cannabis belongs to. There are approximately 170 cannabacae species including cannabis, hops, and hackberries.
Cannabinoids are the chemicals found naturally within cannabis plants (among others) that act on the endocannabinoid receptors in the brain and body to produce a host of potential effects. Cannabinoids have effects on cell receptors in the brain and body and can change how these cells behave and communicate with each other. The most researched cannabinoids are THC and CBD. Not all cannabinoids may result in psychoactive events, nor are all thought to be intoxicating.
Cannabis is a broad term used to describe the various products derived from the leaves, flowers, and resins of the Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica plants, or hybrids of the two.
At BC Cannabis Stores, our cannabis consultants (customer service representatives) are cannabis experts trained to make recommendations on products and accessories that best suit individual customer needs.
Cannabis Control and Licensing Act
/ Cannabis Distribution Act
In preparation for the Canadian government’s legalization of non-medical cannabis on October 17, 2018, BC adopted the Cannabis Control and Licensing Act (CCLA) and the Cannabis Distribution Act (CDA) to frame regulatory policy. These pieces of legislation place health and safety as top priority, designed to protect children and youth, promote social responsibility, reduce the impact of the illicit market, and ensure BC’s roads are safe, while supporting and encouraging economic development. The acts also determined that the BC Liquor Distribution Branch (LDB) is the wholesale distributor of non-medical cannabis in BC and would run provincial cannabis retail stores alongside those of provincially and municipally licensed private retail stores. The acts set a number of standards, including (but not limited to) the minimum provincial age to purchase or sell cannabis (19 years or older), possession allowances per person, and overall enforcement authority.
Carene is a reinvigorating terpene that has a sweet and piney aroma profile. It is found in juniper, pine, and turpentine.
Caryophyllene is a balancing terpene common in basil, oregano, hops, and rosemary, and in spices such as cloves, caraway, black pepper, and cinnamon. It commonly presents notes of spice and pepper.
CB1 / CB2 receptors
CB1 and CB2 are the names for the cannabinoid receptors that are found throughout the body, in most tissues and organs, which are especially numerous in the brain and nervous system. Cannabinoid receptors are involved in the regulation of many bodily functions including: brain and nervous system activity, heart rate and blood pressure, digestion, inflammation, immune system activity, perception of pain, reproduction, wake/sleep cycle, regulation of stress and emotional state and many other functions. One of the principal active ingredients in cannabis (THC) acts on the CB1 and CB2 receptors. Other cannabinoids, such as CBD, may also have targets other than the cannabinoid receptors.
CBD, or cannabidiol, is one of more than 120 known cannabinoids, and is the second most common cannabinoid found in the cannabis flower, behind THC. Unlike THC, CBD on its own does not cause intoxication. Certain evidence suggests that CBD may mitigate some of the intoxicating effects of THC on the mind, when the amount of CBD in the cannabis is the same or higher than the amount of THC. CBD is also being studied for its possible therapeutic uses such as treatment of inflammation and seizures.
CBDA, or cannabidiolic acid, is the chemical precursor to cannabidiol (CBD) and is found in the trichomes of unheated and uncured fresh cannabis flowers. When CBDA is heated over time (through decarboxylation), it becomes activated as CBD.
CBG, or cannabigerol, is one of more than 120 known cannabinoids in cannabis. CBG is a non-intoxicating compound. Ongoing research shows that it has promise across a wide range of potential applications.
CBL, or cannabicyclol, is one of more than 120 known cannabinoids in cannabis. CBL is not associated with potential feelings of euphoria. Very little is known about this rarely investigated cannabinoid.
CBN, or cannabinol, is one of more than 120 known cannabinoids in cannabis. Studied for its possible therapeutic uses, CBN is being researched more thoroughly. CBN can also be a by-product of oxidization—when THC oxidizes, it converts to CBN.
Cedrene is a settling terpene that has a woody, earthy, and sweet scent. It is most commonly found in cedar and is also found in juniper and cypress.
A clone is an exact genetic reproduction of a cannabis plant, usually created by cutting a branch from a parent plant, removing the lower leaves, and planting the stem into a damp soil medium. Hormones are utilized to encourage the development of new roots. Cloning plants may save growers time and money, while providing genetic consistency of product.
A cola is a cluster of flowers that grow tightly together. The main cola is at the top of the plant and is sometimes called the terminal or apical bud. Other small colas may occur at budding sites on the lower branches. These are often trimmed away in order to concentrate the plant’s resources into the apical bud.
Smoking (or combusting) cannabis is historically the most common method of activating the chemicals in the plant for human consumption (see decarboxylation), and can be done in the form of a rolled joint, or with a pipe or bong. For those concerned about the potential harmful effects of smoking, other legal methods for cannabis consumption include vaporization or ingestion (via oils or capsules). Smoking cannabis is not recommended. Smoking cannabis may increase the risk of developing respiratory infections or chronic cough. Do not smoke or vaporize cannabis in the presence of children.
A cross is the result of two strains of cannabis being bred together, usually in an attempt to preserve, increase, or eliminate a particular characteristic. For example, the Pineapple Express strain is a cross between two parent strains, Trainwreck and Hawaiian.
A crutch is another word for a tip or filter of a cannabis cigarette, or joint. A crutch can be made from paper, wood, plastic or glass, although most are made by hand from cardboard. A crutch is useful to prevent burnt lips and wetting the tip of the joint.
Curing is the process of drying cannabis flower with heat, over time, which converts THCA and CBDA to THC and CBD respectively, and preserves the flower for use over a longer duration. Curing is best done over low heat so that fragile cannabinoids and terpenes are able to maintain their potency.
Cymene is a centring terpene with woody, spicy, and citrus notes. It is found in herbs and spices such as coriander, oregano, thyme, and cumin.
Dank is a slang term, generally used to describe a strain of high-quality or potency. Dank cannabis usually presents with a sticky, resinous texture, combined with pronounced aromatics and flavours.
Decarboxylation is the process of converting THCA and CBDA, natural cannabinoids from the cannabis plant, into THC and CBD for human inhalation or ingestion, completed by the addition of heat over time. This takes place as fresh cannabis flower is cured, which may take place over weeks or months, or when smoking or vaporizing dried flower, which is instantaneous.
Decriminalization is the lessening or elimination of criminal penalties in relation to certain acts, sometimes retroactively. Cannabis consumption and possession was partially decriminalized in Canada in 2018.
Diesel is the term for an aromatic descriptor (like gasoline or petrol) that has also been given to sativa-dominant hybrid strains such as Sour Diesel. The aromatics are derived from a combination of terpenes, most commonly limonene, caryophyllene, humulene, and pinene, although the specific percentages of each may change with each phenotype.
Also known as a one-hitter, a dugout is a rectangular case, usually made of wood, with a rotating or sliding lid. It contains two compartments: one that holds a cylindrical metal pipe (for inhalation) and another that may be used to store milled, dried flower.
The fan leaves are the large, primary leaves on the cannabis plant, responsible for collecting sunlight to convert it into chemical energy that feeds the plant. While being one of the most recognizable parts of the cannabis plant, the leaves generally do not contain cannabinoids (THC or CBD) and therefore do not provide any potentially psychoactive or intoxicating experiences. Cannabis leaves may be used as compost, in salad, or infused with hot water to make a simple tea.
Male plants pollinate the females to initiate flower and seed production. Only female plants produce the flowers that are utilized for medical and non-medical use. Feminized plants/seeds are selectively bred or cloned for efficiency in production.
Fenchol is a restorative, bitter, piney, floral, lime-like terpene that is found in fennel and basil, helping to give the latter its distinctive aroma.
This is the distinctive, yet subjective, taste of cannabis, which is perceived through inhalation or ingestion.
Flavonoids are a class of plant and fungus compounds that are responsible for the vivid colours in fruits and vegetables, designed to attract pollinators, or to act as chemical messengers, physiological regulators, and cell cycle inhibitors.
Sometimes known as the bud, the flower is the reproductive organ of the female cannabis plant, which produces seeds when pollinated by a male plant. The flower is the most commonly utilized part of cannabis for medical and non-medical use, and is the source of the plant’s greatest concentrations of active cannabinoids.
Flowering time, aka the flowering stage, begins when the flower first appears, and ends when mature flowers are produced. It follows the vegetative stage where the vine and leaves are actively growing. Flowering time can vary greatly between strains and can take between 60-140 days. Cannabis indica strains generally have a shorter flowering time than Cannabis sativa strains.
A genotype refers to the set of genes that a cannabis plant carries. A genotype differs from its phenotype, the expression of those genes, which is influenced by the plant’s environment or specific breeding techniques.
Geraniol is a relaxing terpene naturally produced in geranium flowers, tobacco, and lemons. Its floral, waxy, and fruity aromatics are similar to citronella.
Geranyl Acetate is a harmonizing terpene with a sweet, floral, and herbal aroma profile. It is found in geranium, palmarosa, citronella, and lemongrass.
Germination is the process of sprouting a seedling (a baby cannabis plant) from a seed. Germination usually begins in a dark, moist medium (soil, a paper towel) before the seedling is transferred to another medium such as soil.
A grinder is a device used to break up dried flower into smaller pieces before being rolled into a joint or pressed into the bowl of a pipe, bong, or vaporizer. Grinders can be made of metal, wood, or plastic, and may sometimes have an additional bottom compartment to collect the kief (dried trichomes) as they become separated from the plant material. A micro planer or grinder card performs the same function as a grinder.
Usually signifying a potent sativa-dominant strain of cannabis, haze varieties feature bright aromas and flavours of citrus and sweet spice.
Heirloom cannabis refers to an old or original strain that was created through open pollination and differs from a purpose-made hybrid. These strains have been moved from, and are grown outside their native region. Heirloom varieties are an important library of living genetic material.
Cultivated around the world for more than 12,000 years, hemp is a Cannabis sativa plant that is grown for industrial use. Hemp varieties are bred to be low in THC (less than 0.3%). The stalks of the male hemp plants are used for rope, canvas, carpet, fabric (clothing), paper and biofuel, while the seeds from female plants are used for food (bread, milk products), pressed for its oil, or milled into flour.
A hermaphrodite is a plant or animal that has complete or partial reproductive organs normally associated with both the male and female sexes. Although male and female cannabis plants develop flowers, their structures are different. Some plants may be distinctly male or female, while others display both characteristics. Producers often wish to eliminate hermaphroditic plants from a grow space to prevent male flowers from pollinating the females, initiating seed production, and diluting the plant’s ability to concentrate on flower quality for medical and non-medical consumption.
Humulene is a motivating terpene found in hops, coriander, cloves, and basil, among other plants. Its aroma presents as woodsy and earthy with citrus overtones.
A hybrid strain is a cross between two or more distinct strains of cannabis. Hybrids are intentionally bred to yield particularly desirable characteristics from either parent. Almost all cannabis available in Canada is a hybrid to one degree or another.
Hydroponic cannabis cultivation does not use soil as the growing medium. Cannabis plants produced from this method are grown indoors, with nutrients fed by solution directly to the roots. Some advantages to hydroponic gardening may include faster growth rate, higher yield, greater control of nutrient additions, as well as a reduced use of water and soil. Flavours and aromatics may sometimes be more pronounced using the hydroponic method.
Landrace strains are the domesticated, locally adapted, traditional varieties of cannabis that developed over time in their native regions. These original strains adapted to their natural environments, while remaining distinct from other populations of the same species. Landraces are opposite from cultivars, which have been purpose-bred by humans.
Le Dain Commission
In response to the increase in cannabis-related arrests in Canada in the late 1960s, the Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Medical Use of Drugs was created by the Canadian government. It was launched in 1969 and was completed in 1972, led by its chair, Dean Gerald Le Dain. The commission’s recommendations included decriminalizing simple cannabis possession and cultivation for personal use, and removing cannabis from the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act. It also suggested that cannabis be legally distributed across each province and territory similarly to alcohol distribution. A final recommendation was that the government should allocate resources to research the health and social effects of legalizing cannabis and other drugs, although there were no steps taken to change legislation at that time.
Legalization is the legislative process of creating a legal regime to enable something that was previously prohibited. Cannabis was prohibited in Canada in 1923 and non-medical cannabis was legalized and partially decriminalized in 2018.
A licensed producer is a company that is authorized by Health Canada to produce and sell dried cannabis, fresh cannabis, cannabis oil, or starting materials to eligible members of the public. When non-medical cannabis became legalized in 2018, Canadians were able to purchase legal non-medical cannabis from licensed producers, but only through approved provincial retailers.
Limonene is an uplifting terpene found in citrus rinds, juniper, peppermint, cannabis and rosemary, and its aroma boasts notes of lemon and orange. Limonene is the second-most common terpene in nature.
Linalool is a calming terpene present in lavender, laurel, mint, birch trees, and rosewood. It is often present in high concentrations in sativa plants.
Phellandrene is a brightening terpene that has a minty and citrusy aroma. It is found in peppermint and eucalyptus.
A phenotype is the expression of an organism’s genotype. In a cannabis plant, its phenotype is observed in its height, colour, and yield, as well as its cannabinoid and terpene configuration.
Phytol is a steadying terpene that has a sweet and floral aroma. It is found in green tea, lime, and citrus.
Pinene is an energizing terpene found in pine needles as well as orange peels, parsley, dill, and sage. It is also the most common terpene in the world. It delivers trademark scents of fresh pine and sweet wood.
The pistil is the part of a female cannabis flower that is responsible for the collection of pollen from a male cannabis plant. Pistils are the highly recognizable hair-like filaments on a flower that range in colour from white to burnt orange.
Available for legal purchase in BC, a pre-roll is a cannabis cigarette (joint) that has been assembled and rolled by a licensed producer for purchase in a ready-to-use format, eliminating the need to buy dried flower, papers, and filters separately.
Prohibition is the act of forbidding or banning something by law. Cannabis has been subject to prohibition in Canada since 1923. In 2001, the federal government passed the first regulation that authorized individuals to possess and produce cannabis for a medical purpose. Cannabis became federally legal and partially decriminalized in Canada on October 17, 2018, thereby ending its prohibition in Canada.
Psychoactive refers to a substance that has an effect on the mind or mental processes. While both THC and CBD are psychoactive, only THC results in feelings of euphoria or intoxication.
Pulegone is an enlivening terpene with a minty aroma. It is found in catnip, orange mint, peppermint, and spearmint.
This is the colloquial version of the Cannabis sativa species name. Meaning "cultivated", the species originated in present day Thailand, Southern Africa, and equatorial countries in South and Central America. The tall plants (eight-15 feet) are characterized by thin leaves and spread-out foliage. Leaf and flower colour tends to be pale green. Generally lower in THC, sativa strains are bred for industrial hemp products such as paper or textiles. Sativa strains may often be high in terpenes like limonene and pinene.
Sabinene is a rousing terpene that has a spicy, piney, citrusy aroma. It is found in black pepper, basil, and spruce.
Cannabis seeds, which contain an embryonic cannabis plant enclosed in a protective shell, are not to be confused with hemp seeds, which do not include cannabinoids (THC or CBD) or a live plant. Cannabis seeds are currently legal for sale in Canada.
Shake is comprised of the leftovers of dried flower buds, after grinding and trimming. It also refers to the crumbs of cannabis left in a container that has separated from the flower. Shake is often used in pre-rolls and can sometimes be of consistent quality to a whole bud.
Sinsemilla plants are seedless female plants that produce flowers rich in cannabinoids and terpenes. These are the most common plants for non-medical use..
Skunk refers to a high-potency strain of cannabis with a pronounced musky odour, sometimes similar to a skunk’s noxious discharge. Skunk strains are usually grown indoors under hydroponic growing conditions. The word skunk is also incorporated into many strain names.
The stem is one of the main parts of the cannabis plant. It provides structure and support for the leaves and flowers, is the transportation network for plant fluids and nutrients, and is the hub for the production of new plant tissue. The stem is the site of the nodes (leaf sites) and the internodes (the space between the nodes).
Acting as a sticky trap to receive the male pollen that initiates seed production, the stigma is the receptive area of the pistil.
A strain is a particular genotype of cannabis that is bred for particular characteristics, including aromatics, cannabinoid content, flowering time, and yield. Strains are usually named by their breeder to showcase their individual potential effects or to reference their place of origin.
Stretch, or stretching, refers to a growth spurt that cannabis plants often go through in which the stem of the plant grows rapidly. Stretching is thought to affect flowering and may result in low yielding and lanky plants that can become unstable.
Sugar leaves are small, trichome-covered leaves that are typically part of the flower.
Terpenes are chemicals that are created and stored in the trichomes of the cannabis plant, along with cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. Terpenes give cannabis its distinctive aroma and cannabis users have indicated that terpenes are sometimes associated with various effects. The exact effects of terpenes on their own, and within cannabis, are currently unknown, but the following descriptions may help you navigate our product assortment.
Terpinene is a warming terpene with a spicy and citrusy scent. It is found in many citrus fruits, allspice, cardamom, and juniper.
Responsible for some of the flavours of the famous lapsang souchong tea, terpineol is a refreshing terpene that is also found in pine trees, lilac trees, cannabis, eucalyptus leaves, sap, and lime blossoms.
Terpinolene is a cleansing, piney, floral, and herbal scented terpene that is found in nutmeg, tea tree, conifers, apples, cumin, and lilac trees.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the most researched cannabinoid in cannabis. It is responsible for the way your brain and body respond to cannabis including the high and intoxication. THC has some therapeutic effects but it also has some harmful effects. The potency of THC is shown as a percentage of THC by weight (or by volume in an oil), and its potency in dried cannabis ranges on average from to 10-30%. Cannabis sativa that contains very low amounts of THC in its flowers and leaves (less than 0.3%) is classified as hemp.
This is the abbreviation of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, the cannabinoid found in fresh, undried cannabis which is converted to THC through decarboxylation (the application of heat through curing, combustion or vaporization).
Tetrahydrocannabivarin, aka THCV, is a cannabinoid with similar properties to THC and is common in strains native to southern Africa. THCV is thought to have milder psychoactive and intoxicating effects versus THC, and studies are being conducted about its potential therapeutic uses. .
Trichomes, named for the Greek word for "hair" are the strand-like translucent glands on female cannabis flowers that produce chemicals (terpenes and cannabinoids) important for the defence of the plant.
Trim refers to the waste material (leaves, seeds, stems) from the trimming of dried cannabis flowers.